|Trade Names:||White Ash.|
|Origin:||Europe, North America.|
|Range:||Throughout Europe and parts of eastern United States at altitudes up to approx. 1300 m above sea level. The best growing areas for the veneer industry are found especially in France and to some extent in Germany.|
|Uses:||Good veneer wood for furniture and interior decorating. Burls are epecially in high demand. Also used as wood for sports equipment (parallel bars, etc., due to its high bending strength), gun stocks, tool handles and grips.|
|Properties:||It is hard to differentiate between sapwood and heartwood. In aging, however, there is pronounced darkening of the heartwood with varying diameters down the lengths of the logs. Dark patches can occur as well as frequent figuring. In American Ash, a glass-worm is often demarcating the wood.|
|Machining:||Ash can be easily machined with all tools. The planed edges of fast grown coarse wood tend to break away. The surfaces are very smooth.|
|Seasoning:||The wood is to be dried at a moderate temperature and not too quickly. There is only a slight tendency to warp. Surface checking is extremely rare.|Trade Names: Macassar, Ebony, Marble Wood. Origin: Celebes Islands (East Indies). Range: Celebes Islands, possibly also Malukut Borneo. Uses: Highest quality architectural woodwork, inlays and musical instruments. Properties: The wood is black with contrasty stripes, often marbled. The wood has a distinct sheen and is most decorative. Machining: Despite its extreme hardness Macassar is not particularly difficult to work. Very smooth surfaces are given when planed. Sawdust should be efficiently extracted because of the risk of inflammation of the eyes and skin. Seasoning: Since Macassar is prone to checking it should be dried very slowly and carefully. It should definitely be kept out of the sun. Trade Names: Santos Rosewood. Origin: South America. Range: Brazil, Bolivia. Uses: Architectural woodwork, high class furniture making. Properties: Brought on the market earlier as a substitute wood for Rio Rosewood, this wood has established itself today on the market as highly decorative furniture wood. The lighter and more distinctive the red coloring is, the more valuable the wood. Machining: The wood can only be worked with difficulty due to the interlocking grain. Seasoning: Careful drying is recommended as there is a great risk of checking. Trade Names: Teak. Origin: Southeast Asia. Range: Occurs in India through Burma to Thailand and Vietnam. Best known countries for high quality logs are Burma and Thailand. Due to the heavy demand in the sixties, seventies and eighties the forest stands were heavily exploited which has had a strong negative effect on the quality today. Exact sorting as a result of state-controlled selling possible, especially in Burma. Today often grown in plantations although of questionable quality. Uses: Teak numbers amongst the oldest commercial lumbers. Due to its resistance to fungi and insect infestation ideal for shipbuilding. High quality wood for architectural woodwork and mass-produced furniture which went out of fashion, however, in Central Europe in the eighties and nineties. Now as before a popular wood for furniture in Scandinavia though. Properties: In the veneer trade a difference is made between Golden Teak and contrasty Teak. The wood has a slightly oily surface. Machining: As a general rule machining Teak wood presents no problems. Mineral deposits in the wood have a severe dulling effect on tools. Very smooth surfaces can be achieved by using carbide-tipped tools. Seasoning: The wood has to be dried slowly and carefully but no particular problems are involved. There is no tendency to check or warp. Trade Names: Sucupira, Coeur Dehors. Origin: South America. Range: Primarily in Brazil but also in the northern parts of South America, Venezuela and Guyava. Uses: Sliced veneer, engineering and construction lumber for all interior and exterior applications, windows, doors, parquet flooring, furniture. Properties: The heartwood is red to brown-red with light yellow lines. It is most resistant to fungi, insect attack and the weather. The wood is hard, heavy, tough and dense. Machining: Sucupira is not easy to work due to its extreme hardness and its frequently irregular or interlocked grain. To be recommended are carbide-tipped tools. The wood splits down the edges at too high a feed speed. Seasoning: Sucupira must not be dried too quickly because it is very prone to checking and warping. Too high temperatures cause surface checking and even case hardening. Trade Names: Red Gum, Satin Walnut. Origin: United States. Range: From southern Connecticut to Central Florida, and up to eastern Texas but growing primarily along the Mississippi River basin and the Gulf states.Grows up to 30 m tall with diameters reaching up to 3. Uses: The figured (or flamed) heartwood is very valuable in veneer form where it is used architecturally worldwide. Properties: The sapwood is cream-colored and relatively uniform-looking; the heart wood is of a reddish to dark-brown color both of which can alternate within one single log, thus creating a beautiful marble-like effect. When working up the sap and heart wood together, an extremely decorative result is obtained. The heart wood often has a silky sheen. Machining: The wood can easily be worked with all tools. Seasoning: The wood is highly prone to checking and warping and drying must be done slowly and carefully. Even after fitting-in, strong distortion of the wood may occur in case of variations in temperature.